Date 26-12-2007 By Pravin Satpute

Writing Kashmiri Language using Devanagari Script

Writing Kashmiri in Devanagari Script using Unicode is still a problem and Still need a solution


  1. Kashmiri Language is rich in vowels sounds, it has 17 vowels sounds. See Fig 1

    Fig 1

  1. Existing Devanagari code page doesn't have characters for vowels & corresponding matras for sounds 'I' & 'I:'. Refer 3rd Line in Fig 1

Fig 2

  1. Earlier comment was , these two matras looks like Gurumukhi matras 'u' U+0A41 & 'uu' U+0A42, so we can use same in Kashmiri Language also, but that solution has many problems.

    1. The Gurumukhi shape it not same as require in for Kashmiri language. See Fig 3

Fig 3

    1. Gurumukhi u+0A41 & u+0A42 provides different sounds.

    2. Using characters of Different script for one language is very problematic for NLP

      Operations. Identification of Script will be problematic.

    3. Rendering Engine(Pango, ICU & Uniscribe) Doesn't supports mixing of script for one language, as they treats each script differently. Also they are treating these mix characters of different script as different syllable (Bramhi Script).

    4. Using Only these two matras will not solve the problems since we also need code point for vowels.


We need a four code point in Existing Devanagari Code page U+0900, for Characters shown below

Mean while we can use private user area for these characters.


“Kashmiri Primer”
Author : Dr. Roop K Bhat
Central Institute of Indian Languages, Mysore,